Pigments should be added to ready-to-use pulp before the pulp is added to the vat. The pulp should be relatively thick, 'sloppy', but not 'clumpy', and not too 'runny'. The white pulp itself acts as white color, for pastel shades you can simply add a tiny amount of pigment to the pulp. Intense colors require more pigment. Pigments may be mixed to create greens, oranges, before adding to the pulp, or previously colored pulps can be mixed together, just like paint. The pigment is retained on the fiber either with Twinrocker Sizing or Retention Aid.
If you use Retention Aid, add a small amount to the pulp before adding pigment, and then add a little more after. In either case, the color is properly retained when the fiber is colored and the water is clear. If pigment remains in the water, despite large additions of sizing and/or retention aid, you have over-saturated the pulp. You can pour your pulp into a strainer to remove the excess. Note: White (titanium dioxide) is not normally used to color pulp, the white pulp itself creates pastel shades, simply by adding pigment to it. White pigment creates opacity and will brighten the natural white of the fiber.
Additional Uses: Pigments can be added to methylcellulose to make paste papers or added to gum arabic to make ink or paint used in marbeling.