TWINROCKER PAPERMAKING FIBERS
FIBER SAMPLER: Try them all!
||Labeled 1/8 lb. samples of each of the fibers we carry. These larger samples contain enough fiber to test and still leave enough to keep as a permanent reference.
||Shipping Wt.=1.75 lbs
Cotton (botanical name Gossypium) is a strong, versatile fiber that comes in many forms. It is a
'seed hair' as it surrounds the seed in the cotton ball. When the cotton is ginned, the long
'staple' fibers are separated from the seeds, these fibers are Raw Cotton. Most of this fiber is
used to make cloth. It is cooked and cleaned. Cotton scraps from the garment industry are an
economical source for cotton rag, which we call Cotton Rag Half-Stuff, as it is ready for beating.
After ginning, the remaining seeds are covered with a fuzz of cotton fiber. When cut away from
the seeds, this is the source for cotton linters.
1. COTTON LINTERS (2 Types)
Linters are the young cotton fibers closest to the seed. It can be made into any type of paper from
thick, absorbent sheets to thin, rattly ones; it is the primary fiber used for machine made 'cotton
content' paper. Cotton linters are relatively short with thick walls, when compared to cotton rag
or linen, and is particularly suited to thick, opaque papers. Available in two forms. Each bright
white in color:
1a. COTTON LINTERS # 87
||This fiber replaces cotton linter #27 which is no longer produced. It is a
first cut linter a little shorter than the #27 but suitable for casting.
It is also suitable for sheet forming when a soft or absorbent paper
1b. COTTON LINTERS # 29
||First cut linters used mainly for sheet forming but can also work well in 3D media.
Both types of cotton linters fiber come in sheets measuring about 30'x 38' and
weighing about 10-12 ounces and are priced the same. Please note, they are priced by the pound
rather than by the sheet as the weight per sheet can vary. Proper beating in a Hollander is best.
2. COTTON RAG
This is 100% Staple Cotton that is called 'rag' because it is made from new garment cuttings.
Staple cotton is a much longer fiber than linters and makes a stronger, harder sheet of paper that
shrinks more in drying. It is well-suited for watercolor and book papers.
2a. COTTON RAG # 89
||A bleached cotton muslin that is warm white in color. Rag fiber is called half-stuff
because it has been broken out of the cloth into near thread form.
2b. UNBLEACHED RAW COTTON
||The longest, strongest cotton fiber we have yet seen. It is unbleached and uncooked and should
be cooked in a caustic solution to remove non-archival impurities. It makes a very strong, hard
paper that shrinks a good deal during drying. It is the natural color of cotton, as in unbleached
muslin. Loose strands of fiber ready for cooking & beating.
2c. BLACK DENIM (Sheet Form)
||Made from black denim cloth in sheet form ready for beating into a pulp or use your blender. This black cotton makes a beautiful black paper and is also wonderful to add as a fleck to other pulps. Available by the pound.
Abaca (botanical name Musa textillis) comes from the leaves of a type of banana
tree grown in the Philippines and is often called Manila hemp. Abaca has qualities
of Oriental & Western fibers and can be used with or without a formation aid.
Bleached Abaca (Premium): (currently out of stock)
||Pale, actually off-white. Comes as half-stuff in sheet form, ready for beating.
It is a very long fiber that is high in tear strength. It is soft if prepared
in a blender and hard and rattly if prepared in a beater.
Bleached Abaca (2nd Cut)
||Pale, off white in color. More suitable to process in a blender. It will be
soft whether prepared in a blender or Hollander beater. Will not gain the
translucency of premium abaca.
Unbleached Abaca (2nd Cut)
||A grayish tan in color. As with the bleached abaca (2nd cut) more suitable
to process in a blender. It will be soft whether prepared in a blender or
Hollander beater and will not produce a translucent sheet.
Hemp has a long history as a papermaking fiber; it was as common as linen in Europe from the
14th to the 18th century. Hemp makes a very strong, rattly paper with high shrinkage.
1. RAW HEMP.
||This is an unrefined fiber that has been combed to remove
most of the straw. It is a long, interesting looking fiber that is a natural brown with a greenish
cast. Long loose strands of fiber that are ready for cooking and beating. Also suitable for weaving
The flax plant (botanical name Linum Usitatissimum) is used to make linen cloth. It is called a
'bast' fiber because it comes from the inner bark of the plant.
Raw flax fiber is very long, strong and interesting. Must be cooked in a caustic
solution to remove the non-archival impurities. This fiber makes a strong paper that is hard,
brittle and rattly but, will shrink considerably in the drying process. Used alone or mixed with
other fibers, flax adds strength and aesthetic interest.
Kozo is the most common of the Japanese papermaking fibers. It comes from the inner bark of
shoots of the Kozo (Paper Mulberry) plant, which are harvested annually. Kozo fiber has three
layers of bark: the outer black bark, green bark, and the inner white layer. This fiber is strong and very long but must be cooked in a mild
caustic solution (soda ash) before using. It is much easier to beat than cotton or linen, in fact, can
be beaten by hand. A Hollander beater is much too severe for Kozo. Traditional sheet forming
requires the use of a formation aid. We do not offer Kozo in pulp form as it works better when
beaten by hand or with a stamper.
KOZO from Thailand
||Thailand kozo is not considered as high in quality as Japanese kozo because the winters aren't as cold.
This fiber we carry has had the black bark (chiri) removed, which saves you a lot of chiri picking. The secondary green
bark layer has been removed (mostly) as well.
||Golden wheat straw (raw) from the Brookston area of Indiana. It makes non-archival paper
unless cooked in a caustic solution, which removes the impurities but leaves most of the color.
Long, loose strands of fiber ready for cooking and beating.
Note: Because the volume increases disproportionately with increase in
weight, for this fiber, the more you order the higher the unit cost.